Before we could start drawing our maps we had to get bearings and count our paces to create a mental perimeter of the area. We would do this by measuring the compass bearing from one point of the area to another, and then we would walk to the next point while counting our paces. This way we calculated the length and direction of each side of the area, starting from Orange Rock. Our scale factor for the whole map was two millimeters per pace. Therefore the length of each segment was converted into centimeters.The main element of topographical maps are contour lines that indicate elevation changes in the landscape. They are helpful when going hiking, skiing, or backpacking because they show you where the slope of an area may be too steep to go or where the slope will be easy to walk on. When finding the contour lines for our map we used a virtual map on google. We placed four corner points relative to the rocks that we used in our map and filled in the area between with a different color. We could raise or lower the area by five meters which gave us an idea of what the slope was like. When creating our map we needed to be spatially aware as to where the roads, rocks, ravines, and plant life. We used the bearings and paces we took relative to each other to create our enclosed mapping zone.